In The Catholic Encyclopedia. They all repudiated the interference of the emperor in dogmatic questions and once more rejected Leo's proposal to hold a conference. Theodore set forth, by speech and writing, the reasons for the action of the strict party and firmly maintained his position. Nicephorus stood in the forefront of the battle against iconoclasm. The book was first published in 1958; Nicephorus, patriarch of Constantinople (806-815)died in 829 and is now a Saint, of course. Kadloubovsky and Palmer open their selection, Writings from the Philokalia on Prayer of the Heart (1951) with a text by Nicephorus the Solitary known as “On Sobriety,” or, to provide its longer title, “A Most Profitable Discourse on Sobriety and the Guarding of the Heart.”It is unlikely that the author himself named it. Nikephoros at first replied to his removal from his office by excommunication, but was at last obliged to yield to force, and was taken to one of the cloisters he had founded, Tou Agathou, and later to that called Tou Hagiou Theodorou. . Theodotus was consecrated 1 April, 815. He would not agree, however, and remained in the monastery of St. Theodore, where he continued by speech and writing to defend the veneration of images. "St. Upon the death of Patriarch Tarasius (25 February, 806), there was great division among the clergy and higher court officials as to the choice of his successor. Another work justifying the veneration of images was edited by Pitra under the title "Antirrheticus adversus iconomachos" (Spicil. First published in 1880. Later he was recalled to the capital and given charge of the great hospital. the name of three Byzantine emperors. His house was surrounded by crowds of angry Iconoclasts who shouted threats and invectives. He commanded the patriarch to call a synod, which was held in 809, and had Plato and several monks forcibly brought before it. Nihil Obstat. He died at the monastery of Saint Theodore (Hagiou Theodorou), revered as a confessor. Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos, also spelled Nikephoros Kallistos Xanthopoulos, (born c. 1256—died c. 1335), Byzantine historian and litterateur whose stylistic prose and poetry exemplify the developing Byzantine humanism of the 13th and 14th centuries and whose 23-volume Ecclesiasticae historiae (“Church History”), of which only the first 18 volumes survive, constitutes a significant … Nicephorus Callistus, Ecclesiastical History Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. Defending himself against the accusation that he and his companions were schismatic, he declared that he had kept silent as long as possible, had censured no bishops, and had always included the name of the patriarch in the liturgy. Nicephorus fell ill; when he recovered the emperor called upon him to defend his course before a synod of bishops friendly to iconoclasm. The new emperor promised, in writing, to defend the faith and to protect both clergy and monks, and was crowned with much solemnity by the Patriarch Nicephorus. After vain theological disputes, in December 814, there followed personal insults. Martyr Nicephorus of Antioch, in Syria Commemorated on February 9. Mango's treatment of Nicephorus's sources is sober and conservative, particularly in refuting the idea that one of those sources was the "Great Chronographer" (pp. The opponents of the patriarch were condemned, the Archbishop of Thessalonica was deposed, the Abbots Plato and Theodore with their monks were banished to neighbouring islands and cast into various prisons. . Gregoras, Nicephorus, 1295-1359 or 60. After founding a monastery near the Black Sea, he was chosen despite being a layman to succeed to the office of patriarch of Constantinople in 806, succeeding St. Tarasius. St. Nicephorus. With fearless energy the Patriarch Nicephorus now proceeded against the machinations of the Iconoclasts. The first full English translation, with an introduction, of Al-Qasida al-Arminiyya al-MalÊ¿una (The Armenian Cursed Ode)— written on behalf of Nicephorus Phocas (regn. He was guarded by soldiers and not allowed to perform any official act. Saint Nicephorus was a dignitary at the court of the empress Irene (797-802), and then after receiving monastic tonsure, he became known for his piety. Leo now raised to the patriarchate Theodotus, a married, illiterate layman who favoured iconoclasm. Ecclesiastical approbation. The popular general, Leo the Armenian, now became emperor, 11 July, 813. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99... Patriarch of Constantinople, 806-815, b. about 758; d. 2 June, 829. Nicephorus received permission to return from exile if he would promise to remain silent. St. Nicephorus. His father, Theodore, was secretary to the emperor Constantine VCopronymus, a iconoclast. His feast is celebrated on this day both in the Greek and Roman Churches; the Greeks also observe 2 June as the day of his death. Const. Imprimatur. Boon. Nicephorus also left two small historical works; one known as the Breviarium", the other the "Chronographis", both are edited by C. de Boor, "Nicephori archiep. Vol. Theodotus was consecrated 1 April, 815. NICEPHORUS I, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE, ST. Patriarchate April 12, 806 to March 13, 815; Byzantine theologian and historian; b. Constantinople, c. 758; d. in exile near Chalcedon, June 2, 828. Emperor from 802. 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Emperor Nicephorus considered it important to have this matter settled and, at his wish the new patriarch with the concurrence of a synod composed of a small number of bishops, pardoned Joseph and, in 806, restored him to his office. After crowning MICHAEL I, he inspired massacres of "heretic" Paulicians. Contact information. The Chronography offered a universal history from the time of Adam and Eve to his own time. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. Imprimatur. Attaleiates reported that Botaniates was able to keep command over his mounted troops as he extricated them from being overrun by the Pecheneg horde. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11050a.htm. He was the son of the imperial secretary Theodore and his pious wife Eudoxia. Nicephorus." Nicephorus I. Nicephorus (feast day March 13) spent most of his life close to the throne, during a time when political change was the only constant. In December, 814, Nicephorus had a long conference with the emperor on the veneration of images but no agreement was reached. A large number of the laity were also present on this occasion and the patriarch with the clergy and people remained in the church the entire night in prayer. Nicephorus first had a long, private conversation with the emperor, in which he vainly endeavoured to dissuade Leo from his opposition to the veneration of images. 0668 First Siege of Constantinople: This attack lasts off and on for seven years, with the Muslim forces generally spending the winters on the island of Cyzicus, a few miles south of Constantinople, and only sailing against the city during the spring and summer months.The Greeks are able to fend off repeated attacks with a weapon desperately feared by the Arabs: Greek Fire. He was guarded by soldiers and not allowed to perform any official act. With two other officials of high rank he represented the Empress Irene in 787 at the Second Council of Nicaea (the Seventh Ecumenical Council), which declared the doctrine of the Church respecting images. cit., 205-534). Upon this he was arrested at midnight in March, 815, and banished to the monastery of St. Theodore, which he had built on the Bosporus. A short lifespan might also indicate health problems that were once prevalent in your family. 11. Nicephorus the General The Battle of Zygos Pass (1053) is where Nicephorus first caught the attention of his contemporaries and historians with a heroic feat that made him famous. When Nicephorus demanded the confession of faith, before the coronation, Leo put it off. Pope Leo sent an encouraging and consolatory reply to the resolute confessors, upon which they wrote another letter to him through Epiphanius. The Catholic Encyclopedia. His merit is the thoroughness with which he traced the literary and traditional proofs, and his detailed refutations are serviceable for the knowledge they afford of important texts adduced by his opponents and in part drawn from the older church literature. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. The emperor then summoned Nicephorus to him, and the patriarch went to the imperial palace accompanied by the abbots and monks. They all repudiated the interference of the emperor in dogmatic questions and once more rejected Leo's proposal to hold a conference. Theodore, however, was an iconodule and came into conflict with the emperor who removed him from his position and then had him scourged and tortured before banishing him. Although the matter was not openly discussed, he and his followers now held virtually no church communion with Nicephorus and the priest, Joseph. When Constantine VI and Irene came to the imperial throne and restored t… There he devoted himself to ascetic practices and to the study both of secular learning, as grammar, mathematics, and philosophy, and the Scriptures. cit., 535-834); the second part contains the "Antirrhetici", a refutation of a writing by the Emperor Constantine Copronymus on images (loc. Vol. Transcription. The dogmatic treatises, chiefly on this subject, that he wrote are as follows: a lesser "Apology for the Catholic Church concerning the newly arisen Schism in regard to Sacred Images" (Migne, P.G., C, 833-849), written 813-14; a larger treatise in two parts; the first part is an "Apology for the pure, unadulterated Faith of Christians against those who accuse us of idolatry" (Migne, loc. [3] His remains were solemnly brought back to Constantinople by Methodios I of Constantinople on March 13, 847, and interred in the Church of the Holy Apostles, where they were annually the object of imperial devotion. Boon. The Holy Martyr Nicephorus lived in the city of Syrian Antioch. His house was surrounded by crowds of angry Iconoclasts who shouted threats and invectives. Nicephorus. A final and, as it appears, especially important treatise on this question has not yet been published. Later the patriarch sent several learned bishops and abbots to convince him of the truth of the position of the Patriarch on the veneration of images. Nicephorus added to this second part seventy-five extracts from the writings of the Fathers [edited by Pitra, "Spicilegium Solesmense", I (Paris, 1852), 227-370]; in two further writings, which also apparently belong together, passages from earlier writers, that had been used by the enemies of images to maintain their opinions, are examined and explained. Saint Nicephorus was a dignitary at the court of the Empress Irene (797-802). The emperor wished to have a debate between representatives of the opposite dogmatic opinions, but the adherents of the veneration of images refused to take part in such a conference, as the Seventh Ecumenical Council had settled the question. The emperor then summoned Nicephorus to him, and the patriarch went to the imperial palace accompanied by the abbots and monks. Kirsch, Johann Peter. To it he appended a canon catalog (which does not include the Revelation of John). From there he carried on a literary polemic for the cause of the iconodules against the synod of 815. The pseudo-synod now commanded that he should no longer be called patriarch. After the death of the Patriarch Tarasios of Constantinople, although still a layman, he was chosen patriarch by the wish of the emperor (Easter, April 12, 806). Nicephorus first had a long, private conversation with the emperor, in which he vainly endeavoured to dissuade Leo from his opposition to the veneration of images. In December, 814, Nicephorus had a long conference with the emperor on the veneration of images but no agreement was reached. A large number of the laity were also present on this occasion and the patriarch with the clergy and people remained in the church the entire night in prayer. But the patriarch would not recognize the synod and paid no attention to the summons. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. opuscula historica" in the "Bibliotheca Teubneriana" (Leipzig, 1880). Later the patriarch sent several learned bishops and abbots to convince him of the truth of the position of the Patriarch on the veneration of images. In it he sought to excuse the long delay by the tyranny of the preceding emperor, interwove a rambling confession of faith and promised to notify Rome at the proper time in regard to all important questions. Saint Nicephorus was born in Constantinople about the year 758, of pious parents; his father Theodore endured exile and tribulation for the holy icons during the reign of Constantine Copronymus (741-775). 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1335), the last of the Greek ecclesiastical historians. About this page Theodore declared that silence under these conditions would be treason and expressed sympathy with the patriarch whom the emperor forbade to hold public service in the church. However, Michael would not consent to an actual restoration of images such as Nicephorus demanded from him, for he declared that he did not wish to interfere in religious matters and would leave everything as he had found it. Under the empress Irene, Nicephorus was logothete of the genikon (manager of the main treasury). The two treatises discuss passages from Macarius Magnes, Eusebius of Caesarea, and from a writing wrongly ascribed to Epiphanius of Cyprus. He was well educated. He brought to trial before a synod several ecclesiastics opposed to images and forced an abbot named John and also Bishop Anthony of Sylaeum to submit. His feast is celebrated on this day both in the Greek and Roman Churches; the Greeks also observe 2 June as the day of his death. On the advice of Nicephorus he put the heretical and seditious Paulicians to death and tried to suppress the Iconoclasts. The emperor received those who had accompanied Nicephorus, among them seven metropolitans and Abbot Theodore of Studium. The emperor had also recourse to the papacy in reference to these quarrels and had received a letter of approval from Leo. If you want to read (in French) the quality of his insults against … 17- 18). As soon as the new emperor had assured the peace of the empire by the overthrow of the Bulgarians his true opinions began gradually to appear. Nicephorus became known for his intellect and his eloquence, and received the post of imperial commissioner. The pseudo-synod now commanded that he should no longer be called patriarch. A final and, as it appears, especially important treatise on this question has not yet been published. opuscula historica" in the "Bibliotheca Teubneriana" (Leipzig, 1880). How unique is the name Nicephorus? Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.CONTACT US | ADVERTISE WITH NEW ADVENT. Nicephorus I can be considered one of the Byzantine Empire's more controversial emperors, … He entered into connection with the opponents of images, among whom were a number of bishops; it steadily grew more evident that he was preparing a new attack upon the veneration of images. He was mild in his ecclesiastical and monastical rules and non-partisan in his historical treatment of the period from 602 to 769 (Historia syntomos, breviarium). This champion of the orthodox view in the second contest over the veneration of images belonged to a noted family of Constantinople. Nicephorus first had a long, private conversation with the emperor, in which he vainly endeavoured to dissuade Leo from his opposition to the veneration of images. He used the chronicle of Trajan the Patrician. Nicephorus soon gave further cause for antagonism. 0 In the 14th century Nicephorus Callisti undertook a complete church history which covers in its extant form the first six centuries. The emperor received those who had accompanied Nicephorus, among them seven metropolitans and Abbot Theodore of Studium. With the assent of the patriarch he resigned and entered a monastery with his children. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Both these treatises were edited by Pitra; the first Epikrisis in "Spicilegium Solesmense", I, 302-335; the second Antirresis in the same, I, 371-503, and IV, 292-380. After crowning MICHAEL I, he inspired massacres of "heretic" Paulicians. 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