[42] In the following decades, seven other new metals were discovered in "Gadolin's yttria". In the case of Yttrium the group number is 3. Electron configuration The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity. This has inspired lots more studies over the past 20 years. Electron emission of isotopes with those mass numbers is simply less prevalent due to this stability, resulting in them having a higher abundance. Comprehensive data on the chemical element Yttrium is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Yttrium. It provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain. A horizontal row in the periodic table. Atomic mass of Yttrium is 88.90585 u. [64] Yttrium is used in gas mantles for propane lanterns as a replacement for thorium, which is radioactive. It is also used in the making of microwave filters for radar and has been used as a catalyst in ethene polymerisation. The element also used to provide the red colour for early colour television screens, and this is the reason for the background which echoes the Warner Bros. ‘That’s all Folks!’ cartoon splash screen. A Yttrium is in group 3, and elements in this group are metals that tend to lose electrons. Atomic number The number of protons in an atom. 150–152. 5s2 and the term symbol is 2D3/2. Chemical Properties of Yttrium. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without any representation or endorsement made and warranty of any kind, whether expressed or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement, compatibility, security and accuracy. Schematic electronic configuration of yttrium. [2][20] (The +2 state has been observed in chloride melts,[21] and +1 in oxide clusters in the gas phase. Y is the symbol for the element yttrium. The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral yttrium is [ Kr ]. Yttrium is a chemical element with atomic number 39 which means there are 39 protons and 39 electrons in the atomic structure. That was Uppingham School's Simon Cotton with the multiple roles and uses of Yttrium. In addition technical terms are linked to their definitions and the menu contains links to related articles that are a great aid in one's studies. In the case of Yttrium the abbreviated electron configuration is [Kr] 4d1 5s2. [6] Electron spin resonance studies indicated the formation of Y3+ and (C82)3− ion pairs. State at room temperature: Solid "Element 39: Yttrium". The pure element is relatively stable in air in bulk form, due to passivation of a protective oxide (Y2O3) film that forms on the surface. The following rules are followed for writing the number of electrons in different energy levels or shells: The maximum number of an electrons present in a shell is given by formula 2n 2, where ‘n’ is the orbit number or energy level index 1,2,3 … Hence, the maximum number of electrons in different shells are as: In first orbit or K-shell (n=1) = 2 * N 2 = 2 * 1 2 = 2. [75] Yttrium is used to increase the strength of aluminium and magnesium alloys. The chemical symbol for Yttrium is Y. Some are hard to memorise (or predict), so what is the electron configuration of an atom of Y? [8][9][10] Yttrium is the first d-block element in the fifth period. The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity. Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. The temperature at which the solid–liquid phase change occurs. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp (s), principal (p), diffuse (d), and fundamental (f). "This REY-rich mud has great potential as a rare-earth metal resource because of the enormous amount available and its advantageous mineralogical features," the study reads. He called it a magnetic monopole substance - one that instead of having poles, plural, like an ordinary magnet, had a pole. (Greenwood 1997, pp. Yttrium is a soft, silver-metallic, lustrous and highly crystalline transition metal in group 3. Atomic symbol (on Periodic Table of Elements): Y 3. Bednorz and Müller won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1987 for this discovery. Bengt Geijer, the inspector of mines in Stockholm, carried out a rough analysis of ytterbite. [46][61] Global reserves of yttrium oxide were estimated in 2014 to be more than 500,000 tons. Similar to LFP, LYP batteries offer high energy density, good safety and long life. The percentage of a commodity which is recycled. In 1949, Milton Smith published a short work of fiction that he entitled The Mystery of Element 117. The chemical symbol for Yttrium is Y. Neutron Number and Mass Number of Yttrium Mass numbers of typical isotopes of Yttrium are 89. Yttrium is a key ingredient in the yttrium barium copper oxide (YBa2Cu3O7, aka 'YBCO' or '1-2-3') superconductor developed at the University of Alabama and the University of Houston in 1987. Yttrium atoms have 39 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.9.2. Yttrium oxysulfide used to be widely used to produce red phosphors for old-style colour television tubes. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. Johan Gadolin, named by Anders Gustaf Ekeberg. High = substitution not possible or very difficult. Allotropes [48] Yttrium can be found in edible plants in concentrations between 20 ppm and 100 ppm (fresh weight), with cabbage having the largest amount. Click on 'Element Atomic Number', 'Element Symbol', 'Element Name' and 'Element Valence Electrons' headers to sort. [46] Lunar rock samples collected during the American Apollo Project have a relatively high content of yttrium. Areas covered include atomic structure, physical properties, atomic interaction, thermodynamics, identification, atomic size, crystal structure, history, abundances, and nomenclature. The role of the element in humans, animals and plants. [77], A technique called radioembolization is used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastasis. Yttrium and all lanthanides except Ce and Pm have been observed in the oxidation state 0 in bis(1,3,5-tri-t-butylbenzene) complexes, see, The electronegativity of both scandium and yttrium are between. [11][16] Even though the lanthanides are one row farther down the periodic table than yttrium, the similarity in atomic radius may be attributed to the lanthanide contraction. 1794 Location discovered. The temperature at which the solid–liquid phase change occurs. [46], The radioactive isotope yttrium-90 is used in drugs such as Yttrium Y 90-DOTA-tyr3-octreotide and Yttrium Y 90 ibritumomab tiuxetan for the treatment of various cancers, including lymphoma, leukemia, liver, ovarian, colorectal, pancreatic and bone cancers. [27] While most of yttrium's isomers are expected to be less stable than their ground state, 78mY, 84mY, 85mY, 96mY, 98m1Y, 100mY, and 102mY have longer half-lives than their ground states, as these isomers decay by beta decay rather than isomeric transition. Yttria is used as a sintering additive in the production of porous silicon nitride. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture. Yttrium-aluminium garnet (YAG) is used in lasers that can cut through metals. [23][24], Hapticity is a term to describe the coordination of a group of contiguous atoms of a ligand bound to the central atom; it is indicated by the Greek character eta, η. Yttrium complexes were the first examples of complexes where carboranyl ligands were bound to a d0-metal center through a η7-hapticity. [29] Thinking it was an unknown mineral containing the newly discovered element tungsten,[30] he named it ytterbite[e] and sent samples to various chemists for analysis. Boiling point The radioactive isotope yttrium-90 has medical uses. It has the formulaYBa. ●Number of protons in Yttrium(Y) is 39.Protons are present in the nucleus of Yttrium(Y). Density is the mass of a substance that would fill 1 cm. Atomic Mass 88,90585 Learn more about the atomic mass. Text © The Royal Society of Chemistry 1999-2011 It increases the strength of aluminium and magnesium alloys. CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020 (, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", "Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Yttrium and Compounds", "Formation of Yttrium Oxide Clusters Using Pulsed Laser Vaporization", "Rediscovery of the elements: The Rare Earths–The Beginnings", "Rediscovery of the elements: The Rare Earths–The Confusing Years", "Carl Gustaf Mosander and his Research on rare Earths", "Ueber die das Cerium begleitenden neuen Metalle Lathanium und Didymium, so wie über die mit der Yttererde vorkommen-den neuen Metalle Erbium und Terbium", "History of the Recommended Atomic-Weight Values from 1882 to 1997: A Comparison of Differences from Current Values to the Estimated Uncertainties of Earlier Values (Technical Report)", "Superconductivity at 93 K in a New Mixed-Phase Y-Ba-Cu-O Compound System at Ambient Pressure", "Treasure island: Rare metals discovery on remote Pacific atoll is worth billions of dollars", "The rare earths; their minerals, production and technical use", "Review of the World Market of Rare-Earth Metals", "International Mineralogical Association - Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification", "Monazite-(Ce): Mineral information, data and localities", "Xenotime-(Y): Mineral information, data and localities", "Spark Plugs: What's Next After Platinum? Two American professors, Maw-Kuen Wu and Paul Chu, together with their research groups at the University's of Alabama and Houston, studied yttrium barium copper oxide. Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Exercise 2.11. And so the Oscar for best supporting role goes to, you guessed it, Yttrium. There are many possible applications for YBCO; for example MRI scanners could be made to operate more cheaply at a higher temperature using liquid nitrogen coolant. Exposure to yttrium compounds can cause lung disease in humans.[7]. The number of protons and electrons is the same. [11] When finely divided, however, yttrium is very unstable in air; shavings or turnings of the metal can ignite in air at temperatures exceeding 400 °C. Yttrium is a silvery white, moderately soft, ductile metal. [69][70][71], YAG, yttria, yttrium lithium fluoride (LiYF4), and yttrium orthovanadate (YVO4) are used in combination with dopants such as neodymium, erbium, ytterbium in near-infrared lasers. [56] The single crystals of doped YAG are normally produced by the Czochralski process. Each allotrope has different physical properties. Chemical symbol for Yttrium is Y. The number of electrons in each of yttrium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 9, 2 and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d 1 5s 2.The yttrium atom has a radius of 177.6.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. Yttrium is a chemical element with atomic number 39 which means there are 39 protons and 39 electrons in the atomic structure. [22]) Some trimerization reactions were generated with organoyttrium compounds as catalysts. A horizontal row in the periodic table. Exploring Chemical Elements and their Compounds. Atomic Number of Yttrium Atomic Number of Yttrium is 39. Tb3+ can be used as a doping agent to produce green luminescence. Each allotrope has different physical properties. Atomic Number of Yttrium. Covalent radiusHalf of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond. pp. [50][51], Rare-earth elements (REEs) come mainly from four sources:[52]. Number of protons in Yttrium is 39. It can be used to treat some cancers, such as liver cancer. You may browse, download or print out one copy of the material displayed on the Site for your personal, non-commercial, non-public use, but you must retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained on the materials. The study shows that more than 16 million tons of rare-earth elements could be "exploited in the near future." Yttrium is a chemical element with atomic number 39 which means there are 39 protons and 39 electrons in the atomic structure. [12] The addition of yttrium to alloys generally improves workability, adds resistance to high-temperature recrystallization, and significantly enhances resistance to high-temperature oxidation (see graphite nodule discussion below). As the impurity atoms take the position of G e atom in germanium crystal, its four electrons form covalent bonds by sharing electrons with the neighbouring four atoms of germanium whereas the fifth electron is left free. [29] Since yttria was found to be a mineral and not an oxide, Martin Heinrich Klaproth renamed it gadolinite in honor of Gadolin. [12] Yttrium nitride (YN) is formed when the metal is heated to 1000 °C in nitrogen.

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